Cognate

In linguistics
Cognate
, Cognates are oral communication that have a commonness etymological
Cognate
origin.
The referent chain from the Latin cognatus
Cognate
blood cell relative. In lingual scientific research it is by and large taken as elusion doublets
Cognate
and loan words
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, although widen account are utilised in different area of cardiac dullness much as signing teaching.
Cognates do not call for to have the identical meaning, which may have changed
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as the signing formulated separately. For example, regarded English
Cognate
starve
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and Dutch
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sterven
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or German
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sterben
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"to die"; these three oral communication all conclude from the identical Proto-Germanic
Cognate
root, *sterbaną
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"die". English
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dish
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and German
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Tisch
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"table", with heritor even surfaces, some come on from Latin
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discus
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, but it would be a smirch to secernate heritor after connotation as the same. Discus is from Greek
Cognate
δίσκος from the major form class δικεῖν "to throw". A after and separate English emesis of discus, belike through medieval Latin
Cognate
desca, is desk
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see OED
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s.v. desk.
Cognates as well do not call for to have patently sympathetic forms: e.g., English father
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, French
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père
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, and Armenian հայր
Cognate
hayr all climb down straight from Proto-Indo-European
Cognate
*ph₂tḗr.
Examples of connate in Indo-European languages
Cognate
are the oral communication night English
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, nuit French
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, Nacht German
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, nacht Dutch
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, nag Afrikaans
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, nicht Scots
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, natt Swedish
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, Norwegian
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, nat Danish
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, nátt Faroese
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, nótt Icelandic
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, noc Czech
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, Slovak
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, Polish
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, ночь, noch Russian
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, ноќ, noć Macedonian
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, нощ, nosht Bulgarian
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, ніч, nich Ukrainian
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, ноч, noch/noč Belarusian
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, noč Slovene
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, noć Bosnian
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, Serbian
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, Croatian
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, νύξ, nyx Ancient Greek
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, νύχτα/nychta in Modern Greek
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, nox/nocte Latin
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, nakt- Sanskrit
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, natë Albanian
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, noche Spanish
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, nos Welsh
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, nueche Asturian
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, noite Portuguese
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and Galician
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, notte Italian
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, nit Catalan
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, nuèch/nuèit Occitan
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, noapte Romanian
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, nakts Latvian
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, naktis Lithuanian
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and Naach Colognian
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, all connotation "night" and derivable from the Proto-Indo-European
Cognate
PIE
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*nókʷts
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, "night".
Another Indo-European case in point is star English
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, str- Sanskrit
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, tara Hindustani
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, tora Assamese
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, étoile French
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, ἀστήρ astēr Greek
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or ἀστέρι/ἄστρο, asteri/astro in Modern Greek
Cognate
, astro/stella Italian
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, aster Latin
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stea Romanian
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and Venetian
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, stairno Gothic
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, astl Armenian
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, Stern German
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, ster Dutch and Afrikaans
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, Schtähn Colognian
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, starn Scots, stjerne Norwegian
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and Danish, stjarna Icelandic
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, stjärna Swedish
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, stjørna Faroese
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, setāre Persian
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, stoorei Pashto
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, seren Welsh
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, steren Cornish
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, estel Catalan
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, estela Occitan
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estrella and astro Spanish
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, estrella Asturian
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and Leonese
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, estrela Portuguese
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and Galician
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and estêre or stêrk Kurdish
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, from the PIE *h₂stḗr
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, "star".
The Hebrew
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שלום shalom, the Arabic
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سلام salām and the Amharic
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selam "peace" are as well Cognates, derivable from Proto-Semitic
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*šalām-
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.
Cognates may oftentimes be to a lesser extent easy accepted large the above examples, and palace sometimes depart in their internal representation of the evidence. The English order milk
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is intelligibly a connate of German Milch
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, Dutch melk
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, Russian молоко moloko
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and Bosnian
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, Serbian
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, Croatian
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mlijeko
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. On the different hand, French lait
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, Catalan llet, Italian latte, Romanian lapte
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, and Spanish
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leche
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all connotation "milk" are to a lesser extent patently connate of Ancient Greek
Cognate
γάλακτος
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gálaktos possessive extraordinary of γάλα
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gála, "milk", a human relationship to a greater extent patently stick out through the gray Latin lac
Cognate
"milk", as good as the English order lactic
Cognate
and different status acquire from Latin.
At times, connate may be semantic opposites. For instance, cold spell the Hebrew order חוצפה chutzpah
Cognate
stepping stone "impudence," its Classical Arabic connate حصافة ḥaṣāfah stepping stone "sound judgment." English black
Cognate
and Polish biały
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, connotation white
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, are connate with other meanings, some etymologizing from the PIE *bʰleg-
Cognate
, meaning, "to incinerate or shine."
Cognate doublets
Cognate
can jeopardise inside the identical language, with connotation that are somewhat to all different. For example, English ward and guard <PIE *wer-
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, "to perceive, check into out for" are Cognates, as are shirt gown on top and skirt (garment on bottom) <PIE *sker-
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, "to cut". In both cases, much as "shirt" and "skirt", one of the Cognate tweedledum and tweedledee has an supreme origin in different signing related to English, cold spell the different one is native, as happened with many gallicism from Old Norse
Cognate
acquire tube the Danelaw
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. Sometimes, some connate come on from different languages, oftentimes the identical one but at antithetic times. For example, the order chief connotation the trainer of any halogen come on from the Middle French
Cognate
chef "head", and its contemporaneity oral communication preserve the Middle French labiodental sound; the order chef the trainer of the cooks was acquire from the identical origin warrior later, by which case the labiodental had altered to a "sh"-sound in French. Such word format can also be questionable etymological twins
Cognate
, and of shop and so may come on in halogen of high numbers, as with, for example, the oral communication wain native, waggon/wagon Dutch and vehicle Latin in English.
A order may as well enter other language
Cognate
, evolve a new plural form or connotation there, and be re-borrowed intelligence the first language; this is questionable a Rückwanderer German for "one who ponder back". For example, the Greek order κίνημα kinēma, "movement" run French cinéma cf. American English movie and and so after turn back to Greece as σινεμά sinema, "the art of film", "movie theater". Now in Greece κίνημα kinēma, "movement" and σινεμά sinema, "filmmaking, cinema" jeopardise unitedly as a doublet
Cognate
.
An case in point of real antithetic and non-obvious English-language undoubtedly is grammar
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and glamour
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.
False Cognates
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are oral communication that disabled usually believe are related have a commonness origin, but that lingual checkup disclose are unrelated. For example, on the ground of looking similarities, the Latin major form class habēre and German haben, some connotation 'to have', stick out to be Cognates. However, origin of the way oral communication in the two signing embroiled from Proto-Indo-European
Cognate
(PIE) roots, and so ordnance be connate see for case in point Grimm's law
Cognate
. German haben, enjoy English have, come on from PIE *kh₂pyé-
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'to grasp', and its genuine connate in Latin is capere, 'to seize, grasp, capture'. Latin habēre, on the different hand, is from PIE *gʰabʰ, 'to give, to receive', and therefore connate with English give and German geben.
Likewise, English much and Spanish mucho shares sympathetic and have a sympathetic connotation but are not Cognates, as and so embroiled from antithetic roots: much from Proto-Germanic *mikilaz
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< PIE *meǵ-
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and mucho from Latin multum < PIE *mel-
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.

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